1.1 artificial intelligence
Artificial intelligence (AI) is proposed based on the development of Internet, Internet of things, big data and other technologies. Its definition is to build a network platform based on the concept of industrial manufacturing, to replace artificial labor to the maximum extent, and to improve labor production efficiencyand economic benefits.
1.2 concept of artificial intelligence pig raising
Artificial intelligence pig raising is to combine artificial intelligence with pig raising industry, and achieve a significant improvement in the production efficiency of pig farms through the connection of Internet, Internet of things and big data technology. Form a business model of digital management, business e-commerce, financial development and industrial ecology, and explore a new road of automation, informatization and intelligent pig raising.
Therefore, artificial intelligence pig breeding is referred to as AI pig breeding.
Animal biological characteristics refer to certain growth and reproduction indexes and habits naturally formed by animals. For example, the gestation period of sows is 114d and the egg incubation period is 21d. The design principle of the artificial intelligence pig farm is to comprehensively manage the whole process of pig production with big data, robots and Internet technologies according to the biological characteristics of pigs, using the latest research results in precision feeding, temperature control and ventilation, sow breeding, epidemic prevention and control, and mechanized pig raising, so as to save labor, materials, water and energy, reduce the production cost of pigs and reduce the loss of epidemic diseases, To greatly improve labor productivity and economic efficiency.
3.1 pig face recognition technology
The pig face recognition technology is to scan the pig’s face to understand the pig’s health status, including food consumption, identity information, taste preferences, etc.
3.2 breeding patrol robot
The inspection robot is installed on the roof of the pig house and “walks” back and forth on the top along the track of the inspection vehicle. The camera is used to conduct the movement in the inspection shed.
The camera is an intelligent camera with Internet of things and cloud functions, infrared fill light night vision function and transmission input terminal mobile phone (computer) viewing function, and provides 110 ° wide-angle monitoring field of view. Install a certain number of cameras at a certain position to comprehensively implement 24-hour and 24-hour capture imaging monitoring for the entry and exit of personnel in the pig farm, the transfer of live pigs and the entry and exit of vehicles in the farm, which can be used by management personnel to analyze the management loopholes of the pig farm and improve the biosafety level.
3.4 precise feeding system
Using the precise feeding system, a complete feeding control system and a complete chain of supervision can be formed to verify the model of nutrition, feed meat ratio and cost. The system is composed of a silo, a feeding pipe, an automatic feeding room, a sensor in the feeding room, a feeding computer controller and other equipment.
For example, the liquid feeding remote monitoring system developed by Zhang Jun realizes the control chain among browser, data server, acquisition terminal, PLC controller and feeding equipment.
3.5 ultraviolet temperature measurement and imaging technology
This technology, combined with acoustic characteristics and ultraviolet temperature measurement and imaging technology, can judge whether pigs are sick by their body temperature, cough and cry, and can be used for early diagnosis of epidemic diseases.
3.6 sow oestrus and early pregnancy diagnosis technology
The technology can clearly show when the lactating sows are weaned and transferred to the breeding house, whether the sows to be matched in the breeding house enter the estrus period, when to induce the estrus to check the estrus, and which sows need pregnancy test and mark the fields.
3.7 syringe capable of recording injection information
In the past, the information about the vaccination of pigs needed to be manually recorded. However, the newly developed v-etic syringe is suitable for pigs wearing low-frequency RFID ear tags, and can collect, store, share and use the injection information anytime and anywhere.
3.8 climate sensor
The parameters that can be measured by the climate sensor include air temperature, surface temperature, air flow, water consumption, pH, air speed, humidity, light intensity, feed consumption, power consumption, heat consumption, ammonia, H2S, CO2, etc.
3.9 infrared temperature sensor temperature control technology
The infrared temperature sensor is located on the ceiling close to the heater. When the piglets are breastfeeding, the sensor records the body surface temperature and floor temperature of the piglets. It can sense the changes in the rest area and react, and adjust the heat output of the heater at any time.
3.10 mobile pig pen and robot driving system
The mobile pig pen is mainly designed for the positioning bar of pregnant sows. It is moved to the litter and lactation pen in the later due date to reduce driving stress and abortion. The robot drives the incoming and outgoing pigs, the piglets enter the predetermined barn, and the finishing pigs to be slaughtered are driven to the loading platform for loading, so as to avoid contact between people and pigs and reduce the spread of disease.
4.1 artificial intelligence pig raising of feeding system
It is composed of a silo, a feeding pipe, an automatic feeding room, a feeding room sensor, a two-dimensional code ear tag chip, a feeding computer controller, etc. one of the automatic feeding rooms includes a station electronic scale, an electronic scanning identifier, a chute and an on-off device. Generally, one automatic feeding room can feed 10 pigs. The number of automatic feeding rooms shall be set for each column of finishing pigs according to the number of pigs, and 4 automatic feeding rooms shall be set for 40 pigs.
Quantitative: when a pig enters the feeding room, scan the two-dimensional code ear mark of the pig to determine the identity (number, variety and age). The electronic scale is used to weigh the pig. The feeding computer controller can accurately feed the pig according to the displayed data.
Timing: three meals in the morning, middle and evening, or one additional meal at 24:00 PM. Breakfast: 6:30-7:30, Chinese food: 12:00-13:00, dinner: 18:30-19:30. One automatic feeding room can feed 10 pigs correspondingly. Each pig enters the feeding room and each meal is only opened for 6 minutes. After 6 minutes, the feeding trough automatically closes, the feeding pigs exit, and the other pig enters the feeding room to eat. Timing can form the conditioned reflex of pig feeding time.
Accurate feed formula: the feed formula of finishing pigs can be accurate to one formula per 10kg stage. The weight difference of pigs in the same column in each barn is required to be less than 10kg. The residual material of cleaning tank shall be recycled once every night and dried for use. It is completed by the trough cleaner, the recovery pipeline and the feed dryer. The working principle of the trough cleaner is the same as that of the vacuum cleaner.
4.2 design of epidemic disease monitoring system（artificial intelligence pig raising）
The automatic feeding room is equipped with epidemic disease monitoring equipment, such as ultraviolet temperature measurement and imaging equipment. The pigs have to enter the automatic feeding room three times a day to conduct centralized temperature measurement, scan pig body imaging and early diagnosis of epidemic disease. In addition, the disease characteristics of pigs, such as loss of appetite and reduced feeding, and appetite waste never eat, can be monitored through the automatic feeding room. In this way, the difficulty of scanning and identifying each pig in the whole column every day is reduced, and the precision identification and work efficiency are improved.
4.3 design of immune injection system（artificial intelligence pig raising）
Taking advantage of the opportunity that live pigs have to enter the automatic feeding room three times a day, immunization can also be carried out in the automatic feeding room.
The Yangxiang cluster building intelligent pig farm in Guigang City, Guangxi can be seen everywhere. The “pig Hotel”, composed of four buildings, is equipped with eight structural plates, including the central kitchen, isolation area, general material warehouse, production area, living area, sewage plant, feed plant and transfer station. The cleaning and disinfection center and feed roads, personnel access roads, pig exit roads, material channels, sewage plant roads, and even the peripheral roads of the pig farm have been structurally distinguished. The pig farm is also equipped with air filtration, gauze screen anti rat and bird prevention systems, which are omni-directional, no dead angle, and iron barrel like to prevent and control African swine fever, which is called “iron barrel pig farm”. Because it is equipped with feed production (high-temperature granulation of feed), slaughtering workshop and cluster buildings, the intelligent pig farm can realize the closed-loop production and operation of integrating feed, breeding, breeding, slaughtering and commerce. It has formed an intelligent meat factory with a high level of biosafety prevention and control.
6.1 advantages of artificial intelligence in pig breeding（artificial intelligence pig raising）
6.1.1 improve production efficiency and economic benefits（artificial intelligence pig raising）
Take the key index psy in pig breeding as an example, the psy in Europe and America is more than 25, while the average psy in China is 18 heads.
For the profit of about 300 yuan for weaned piglets, there is a profit gap of about 2000 yuan for a difference of 7 pigs.
A key factor affecting psy index is the ability of breeding workers to judge the estrus of sows.
Observe several behavioral characteristics of sows: whether the sow can smell the boar, and whether the body is
Whether it is stiff, whether the vulva is red and swollen and has secretion.
These behavioral characteristics indicate that sows are about to ovulate and then can be artificially bred.
Artificial intelligence pig raising can greatly improve the accuracy of artificial vision judgment.
6.1.2 labor cost is saved
The scale is 20000, the labor quota is 48, and the annual salary (including bonus) of employees accounts for 3.3% of the annual operating income and 35.2% of the annual profit. The artificial intelligence pig farm with 20000 heads only has 13 people, reducing 35 employees and saving 72.9% of employees. The employees of the artificial intelligence pig farm are skilled workers, and their relative wages are slightly higher, but they also save 40% – 50% of their wages.
6.1.3 saving feed cost
Precise feed formula, precise feed feeding and recycling of leftover materials from cleaning tank can save more than 10% of feed and improve the growth and reproductive performance of pigs.
6.1.4 reduce the loss of epidemic disease
Due to the intelligent equipment, it can make early diagnosis and early warning of epidemic diseases, reduce the incidence rate by 50%, and reduce the loss of epidemic diseases by more than 35%. The incidence rate of epidemic disease in general pig farms is 10%, and the disease mortality rate is 15%. Then 10000 pigs can get sick and 150 die, and each
If the head loss is 2000 yuan, the loss is 300000 yuan. The intelligent pig farm can reduce the disease loss by more than 100000 yuan.
6.1.5 saving land for pig farm
It is reported that one building of the intelligent pig farm in the cluster building can accommodate 8800 sows, and one fattening stall is equipped, which can slaughter 250000 pigs per year. To realize the slaughter of 1 million pigs, the traditional breeding method requires more than 8000 mu of land, while the cluster building intelligent pig farm only needs more than 400 mu of land, saving 20 times the land.
6.2 disadvantages of artificial intelligence pig breeding and environmental protection constraints
6.2.1 artificial intelligence pig farm: one-time investment, high construction cost
It is estimated that the construction investment of the artificial intelligence pig farm is 30% higher than that of the large-scale pig farm and 15% higher than that of the mechanized pig farm. The pig industry itself is an industry with large investment and long capital recovery cycle, while the artificial intelligence hardware equipment is expensive and huge investment, and its stability and matching have not been well integrated and verified. The operation and maintenance of facilities and equipment require higher knowledge of professional technicians. The existing equipment and systems have not yet formed a mature mode and reliability of accurate guidance.
6.2.2 ear tag chip and pig face recognition technology still have defects, which need to be improved and mature
The ear tag chip is often bitten off by pigs ,and loses its recognition function. In the aspect of pig face recognition, due to the same breed and inbreeding, the similarity rate of pig face is high, the difference is low, and there are defects. Faces are highly different, and different faces can be distinguished according to small pockmarks or small moles. Pigs are multiparous animals, with low differentiation of pig faces and lower differentiation of the same fetus. In addition, pigs have a low degree of cooperation, which makes it difficult to photograph pig faces. In general, pigs sleep or squint, and it often takes a lot of time to input the data of facial features.
6.2.3 the artificial intelligent pig farm needs a large number of AI intelligent technical workers
It is wise to train before taking up the post and reserve enough intelligent technical workers before setting up an artificial intelligence pig raising farm.
6.2.4 environmental protection constraints（artificial intelligence pig raising）
The scale of the artificial intelligent pig farm is more than 10000 once it is launched. Therefore, the amount of feces and urine produced is large, the difficulty of treatment is increased, and the pressure of environmental protection is large, which restricts the development of the artificial intelligent pig farm. For the study of artificial intelligence pig breeding data, almost no solution to fecal pollution is mentioned, but this is an unavoidable problem for the artificial intelligence pig farm.
To sum up, artificial intelligence pig raising has greatly improved the labor productivity ,and economic benefits of the pig raising industry, brought into play the advantages and strong vitality of high biosafety level and anti African swine fever practice model, overcome its disadvantages and environmental constraints, replace the traditional pig raising industry, and implement the transformation ,and upgrading of the pig raising industry. Artificial intelligence pig breeding will become a sunrise industry, representing the advanced productivity of pig breeding, and has broad development prospects.