The design and manufacture of common pig raising equipment in large-scale chemical plants is an interdisciplinary and comprehensive process.
This paper introduces some commonly used equipment from the perspective of animal husbandry and veterinary medicine according to the laws of pig physiological growth. Due to the different actual conditions and environments, the specifications, models and materials of the equipment are different, so it is unnecessary to insist on consistency in the use process.
The breeding and pregnancy house of common pig raising equipment is equipped with male pig pens, breeding pens and single sow spacing bars.
1.1 Basic requirements
① Boar pen: the length of adult boar is up to 2m. In order to facilitate the turning of boar, the width of boar pen is generally not less than 2.4m, the length is not less than 3m, and the height of the fence is not less than 1.2m. There is a playground outside the house to increase the amount of exercise and the service life of boars.
② Breeding fence: set up a separate breeding fence as far as possible. Since the breeding boar is close to the hind drive of the sow before climbing onto the sow for breeding, the length of the pig house should at least be the sum of the nose to tail length of the breeding boar and the sow.
Also, because the breeding boar has been chasing the sow in the pig house before breeding, the boar needs to have space to walk forward in the pig house, so that it will not rely on its hind legs as a fulcrum or turn with its back arched when turning.
According to the above principle, the length of breeding fence shall not be less than 3.5~4m and the width shall not be less than 3m. Because it is very difficult for boars to approach young sows in the corner of the pig house, the breeding house is designed to be octagonal, the ground of the pig house is designed to be skid resistant, and there are no barriers such as feeding trough and water dispenser installed in the house to affect the balance of pigs.
③ Monomer limit bar for sows: the purpose is to save the area of the pig house and facilitate the feeding and management, but it is not too tight, and it affects the productivity. The single limit bar for sows is designed to open the front and back doors, so as to facilitate the access of sows.
① Boar pen: long × wide × Height=3m × 2.4m × 1.2m;
② Breeding column: octagon, long × wide × Height=4.3m × 3m × 1.2m;
③ Monomer limit bar of sow: long × wide × Height=2.1m × 0.6m × 1.0m, 0.6m of the rear drive of the limit bar is provided with a floor drain of transverse slot, and a trench of the same width is set below.
1.3 Material selection
① The boar fence is a metal gate structure with partition brick wall. The fence is made of hot-dip galvanized pipes. The outer frame is made of 1 “water pipes. The vertical and horizontal bars are made of 1/2” water pipes. Each boar fence is equipped with a cast iron trough and a pure copper duck beak type automatic drinking water dispenser.
② The breeding fence shall be a fence with metal fence spacing, hot-dip galvanized pipe, 1 “outer frame and 1/2” grid bar.
③ Single limit fence for sows: 3/4 “wooden fence strips, 1/2” hot-dip galvanized pipes, 0.6m hindquarters, and cast iron leaky floor with transverse slits are used for the fence pieces and the outer frame of the gate.
Each limit bar is equipped with a cast iron trough and a pure copper duckbill automatic water dispenser, and a unified arc cement trough is also used.
Auxiliary common pig raising equipment: A feeding device is set in the metal limit bar of the sow to reduce the feeding stress. If conditions permit, the farm can also be equipped with an automatic feeding system.
1.5 Manufacturing and installation requirements
① During the manufacturing of the positioning bar, the overall hot-dip galvanizing treatment shall be carried out after processing, which is conducive to extending the service life of the common pig raising equipment.
② Avoid sharp edges and corners from damaging pigs.
③ Cast iron leaky floor must be designed according to the trapezoidal gap between the upper narrow and the lower wide to facilitate the leakage of feces.
④ When installing the common pig raising equipment, pay attention to the change of slope.
The delivery shed is equipped with delivery fence and local thermal insulation common pig raising equipment.
2.1 Basic requirements The delivery house is one of the buildings with the largest investment and highest requirements in the pig farm. Because there is a great gap between the requirements of sows and newborn piglets on the environment, it is necessary to set up local artificial microenvironment.
① The incubator and thermostatic electric heat insulation board are used, and the upper part of the box is equipped with infrared bulbs or ordinary incandescent lamps to meet the temperature needs of the piglets.
② Rake teeth are used for the fence at the sow part, and anti pressure bar is set behind it, which not only limits the range of activities of the sow, prevents the piglets from being crushed, but also facilitates the piglets to breastfeed
③ According to the weight of sows and suckling pigs, cast iron leaky floor is used for sows and woven leaky floor is used for suckling pigs, which not only increases The service life of the equipment is conducive to defecation, cleaning and disinfection.
④ Each delivery fence shall be separated by iron sheet and other plates, and shall be close to the bed surface without fence to prevent piglets from contacting each other.
⑤ In order to facilitate defecation clearing and group transfer, the delivery stall is generally located at the place about 0.25m above the ground.
Long × Width=2.2m × (1.6~1.8) m, divided into three areas, including sow area: long × wide × Height=2.2m × 0.6m × 1.0m；
Rest area for suckling pigs: Long × wide × Height=2.2m × 0.6m × 0.5m； Suckling pig activity area: Long × wide ×= 2.2m × 0.5m × 0.5m。
2.3 Cast iron leaky floor and woven seam floor are selected as materials. The fence is made of 3/4 “galvanized pipe (sow part). The outer frame of piglet fence is made of 1/2” galvanized pipe. The fence bar is made of 8mm round steel. The insulation box is made of PVC hard plastic or fiberglass. Each delivery bar is equipped with pig and piglet feeding trough made of cast iron, and the sow is equipped with automatic water dispenser.
2.4 Manufacturing and installation requirements
① After the delivery bar is processed, it must be hot-dip galvanized as a whole to extend its service life.
② Due to the feeding on the ground net, pay attention to the bearing capacity of the beam during installation, and try to make the distribution of the bearing weight even.
③ A large number of electrical appliances are concentrated in the delivery bar, and non combustible materials should be selected as far as possible. During installation, special attention should be paid to the matching of electrical appliances and lines.
The nursery is equipped with fence, local thermal insulation equipment and ventilation.
3.1 Basic requirements The nursery is also a key link in industrialized pig breeding. Since weaned piglets need to undergo the stress of weaning, environmental changes and nest merging, good common pig raising equipment should be considered to remedy the problem when they arrive at the nursery.
① It must meet the requirements that each pig shall be at least 0.35 m2.
② All cast iron leaky floor is used to facilitate cleaning and disinfection.
③ Intensive feeding is adopted to save building area, and two litters of piglets are combined into one column.
④ According to climate requirements, local insulation measures can be taken, such as laying electric heating plates, hanging infrared lamps, etc.
⑤ In order to facilitate dejecta clearing and group transfer, the conservation fence is located at about 0.25m above the ground.
⑥ In order to eliminate the influence of high feeding density and dirty air, ventilators should be evenly arranged on the north and south walls.
long × wide × Height=3m × 1.8m × 0.75m
3.3 Material selection: The whole bed is of cast iron leaky floor structure; Overlay 0.3m within the range of conservation fence bed × 0.3m × The 0.25m cast iron unit is spliced and connected with hot-dip galvanized flat iron bracket. Cast iron underframe lap beam type all cast iron floor structure can also be used. 3/4 “hot-dip galvanized pipe is used for fence, Φ 10 round steel, equipped with double-sided automatic wet and dry food box, and the bottom of the food box is made of cast iron trough.
3.4 Manufacturing and installation requirements
① After the fence is processed, it must be hot-dip galvanized as a whole to extend its service life.
② As it is raised off the ground, the bearing capacity of the beam should be considered.
4.1 The basic requirement is to provide a feeding position of no less than 0.5 m2/head for growing pigs and no less than 0.7 m2/head for finishing pigs. The narrow and long pig pen is easy to keep clean and dry.
Growth shed: long × wide × Height=5m × 2.4m × 0.9m; Finishing house: long × wide × Height=5m × 3.2m × 0.9m。
4.3 Material selection
Metal gate, cement partition fence and local cement leaky floor on cement floor shall be adopted. The trough adopts double-sided dry and wet automatic food box, and the outer frame adopts 3/4 “hot plating Zinc pipe. The vertical bar adopts 1/2 “hot galvanized pipe.
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