With the continuous change of farming cycle, especially under the support of environmental protection, the scale up process is accelerated.
How to enhance the profitability of pig farm and improve the economic efficiency of pig farming has become a concern and research problem for pig farmers.
1.1 Scientific site selection
The site should be selected according to the relevant national laws and regulations and standards, avoiding water protection areas, scenic spots, densely populated areas and other environmentally sensitive areas, and prohibiting the construction of new scale farms within the prohibited areas.
It is required to have high, dry, flat, open, windward and sunny terrain, good water quality, convenient transportation, convenient drainage terrain, no pollution in the surrounding environment, preferably with natural barriers, and enough land to consume manure to enhance pig farm efficiency.
1.2 Planning and greening
Planning should be done before building the farm: combining local climate and geographical conditions, using natural ventilation and cooling in summer, making full use of sunlight heating in winter and avoiding the main wind direction, generally using the north-south orientation.
According to the planned breeding stock, the standard requirements of building pens and manure treatment, ensure that the manure treatment facilities and rented land can consume the manure.
Consider the near and long term development plan, generally 5 to 10 years of breeding years and scale of planning, so that the construction of the farm can set aside enough space to match to enhance pig farm efficiency.
Breeding farms should adopt the breeding trait-based selection method to improve the reproductive performance of breeding pigs and select male and female pigs with high reproductive rate for breeding.
Relevant research shows that Long White, York and Duroc York has the highest among the 3 breeds, followed by Long White, while Duroc has a relatively low average litter size and average litter size of live piglets.
3.1 Good breeding environment
The pig farm requires a quiet environment, clean, dry, fresh air, sufficient sunlight, warm in winter and cool in summer.
Good environment helps pigs to be healthy and improve the reproduction rate of sows.
The dirty air will cause pigs sneezing, tearing, coughing and other adverse reactions, and even cause respiratory system diseases, which will affect sows’ estrus and reproduction.
Sows are very sensitive to temperature, and heat stress can easily cause sow reproduction disorder.
The suitable temperature for sows is 22 ℃, and the high temperature above 30 ℃ can have serious adverse effects on the reproductive function of sows,
and the critical temperature for sows to abort is 32 ℃.
The critical temperature for sows to abort is 32 ℃. Too high temperature leads to difficulties in heat dissipation of boars’ testicles, causing dead or weak sperm.
If the temperature is too low, the born piglets are prone to freeze to death, and the low temperature caused by hypoglycemia can also make the piglets’ resistance
greatly reduced and become susceptible to piglets, which will cause indigestion or diarrhea in lactating piglets.
3.3 Light time and intensity
Relevant research shows that the weaning weight of piglets in 16 hours of light (8 hours of darkness) per day is higher than that in low light level,
and high light can increase the nursing frequency of piglets and lactation of sows.
4.1 Scientific breeding and special care of breeding boars
4.1.1 The diet of breeding boars should be based on concentrate, and nutrition should be balanced, especially vitamins have a great influence on testicular development and semen quality, especially vitamins A, D and E should not be missing to enhance pig farm efficiency.
If the boar is too fat, the sex drive will be weakened or no sex drive, resulting in reduced mating ability, mostly due to single feed, too much energy and not enough protein, minerals and vitamins;
If the boar is too thin, the semen quality will be poor and the fecundity rate will be reduced, mostly due to poor nutrition or over breeding.
4.1.2 Special care for breeding boars:
① Keep single pen, 6-7 square meters each, quiet, sunny, far away from sow house, avoiding the sound and smell stimulation of sow to affect boars’ mental disturbance and loss of appetite.
② Clean the pig house and brush the pig body frequently to keep good hygiene.
③ Insist on reasonable exercise to improve metabolism, promote appetite and enhance physical fitness.
④Check semen quality regularly so as to adjust nutrition, exercise and arrange breeding frequency at any time.
⑤ Use reasonably to prolong the breeding years and life span of breeding sows.
4.2 Scientific feeding and special care of breeding sows
4.2.1 Selection and retention of reserve sows:
select healthy piglets with good growth and development, large weight, shiny fur, wide and long flat back, strong and powerful limbs,
more than 7 pairs of effective teats and no genetic defects from piglets produced by sows with high litter size and weaning survival number.
4.2.2 Selection and retention of primiparous sows:
According to the situation of sow’s estrus, mating, farrowing and lactation, eliminate sows with poor reproductive performance.
4.2.3 Scientific feeding during gestation:
Generally adopt low nutrition level in the first stage of gestation and increase nutrition level in the second stage to enhance pig farm efficiency.
In addition to ensuring the growth and development of the fetus, the sows in the first stage of gestation have greater nutritional needs,
so they should be fed more feed compared with adult sows, with 10%-15% increase in feed intake in winter and 10% decrease in summer,
in order to ensure the upper body condition of sows.
In summer, in order to improve the sow’s feed intake, vitamin E2, vitamin C and sodium carbonate can be added to each ton of feed.
The principle is to keep the fat of sows not fat but not thin, which is good for farrowing.
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