How to build pig crates is one frequently asked questions by many pig farm owners.Whether the modern large-scale pig production can be carried out in accordance with the technological process, the key is whether the configuration of each special pig house and pig pen is reasonable.
When calculating the number of pens, in addition to the actual feeding days of various types of pigs at this stage, the conditions of the pig house, disinfection and maintenance time, and necessary spare days should also be considered.
When calculating the number of columns, the relevant data should be determined according to the process parameters and specific circumstances. Now, taking the “five-stage feeding” model as an example for a farm with an annual output of 10,000 pigs, the design and calculation of the pig barn are as follows.
Average number of piglets born alive per litter: 10
Sows lactation period: 4 weeks and a total of 28 days
Average gestation period of sows: 114 days
Conception rate in the first estrus of sows: 85%
Time of first estrus after weaning of sows: 0 to 10 days, the second estrus time is 20 to 30 days after weaning
Time from birth to commercial pigs of slaughter : 180 days
Piglet weaning survival rate: 94% (ie, the mortality rate during lactation is 6%)
Piglet nursery rate: 92% (ie, lactation, nursery mortality rate of 8%)
Growth and fattening rate: 90% (ie, lactation, nursery, growing period mortality rate of 10%)
Survival rate from birth to slaughter: 90%
Yearly output 10,000 fatten pigs, the born alive piglets per year: 10,000÷90% = 11111 pigs/year(basis on 90% of the piglet survival rate)
The quantity of sows required; according to the theoretical calculation formula is as follows
Average estrus period of sows: 85%*10 days+15%+30 days = 13 days;
Sow production cycle: 114 days (gestation period) + 28 days (lactation period) + 13 days (average estrus period) = 155 days;
Annual parity of sows: 365 days÷ 155 days ≈ 2.35 parities/year;
Annual number of litters: 11111 ÷ 10 litters/litter ≈ 1111 litters;
Plus 5% of the sows aborted, the number of sows needed in the whole farm: 1170 litters ÷ 2.35 = 498≈ 500 heads.
In the case of natural mating, the ratio of male and female pigs should be 1:25, then the required amount of male pigs is 500 × 1/25 = 20 heads, such as considering factors such as reserve boars, unexpected accidents, etc. , plus 4 backup to be added, that is, the total number of boars is 24;
If artificial insemination is used, the ratio of male and female pigs is calculated according to 1:80, then 500 sows × 1/80 = 6.25 boars are required, and considering other factors plus 4 backup to be added, that is ,the total number of boars is 10.
Production is organized based on “weeks”, and the number of sows that need to be bred per week: (1170 litters ÷ 365 days) × 7 days ≈ 22 heads, so the pig crates shall be calculated according to this.
4 weeks (28 days) after breeding, and 1 week (7 days) before parturition, the staying time in gestation stalls is: 114 days – 28 days – 7 days = 79 days, 79 days ÷ 7 days = 11.29 Weeks, we take 11.29 as 13 weeks;
that is, pregnant sows will stay 13 weeks in the gestation stall, and the gestation stall needs to be left empty for a week for disinfection, there are 12+1=13 weeks in total.
If 22 sows are conceived per week, the number of pregnant sows in co-existing stalls within 79 days is: 13 weeks × 22 pigs = 286 pigs, that is, 284 sets pig stalls are required to accommodate all pregnant sows in the farm.
The size of the gestation crates is usually 220cm long, 60cm wide,110cm high, sometimes for big sizes pig breeder,the length of gestation crates can be 230cm;
The flooring of the gestation crates is usually concrete slat floor, feeders apply stainless steel feeder troughs, drinking device can be nipple drinker or water level controller
Lactating sows transfer to farrowing crates 1 week (7 days) before giving birth, and stay in the farrowing crates for 4 weeks (28 days) during the lactation period.
The staying time is: 7 days + 28 days = 35 days, that is, 5 weeks, plus the empty pen is sterilized for 1 week, the farrowing pen should be occupied for 6 weeks.
If 22 sows give birth per week, the number of farrowing crates required is: 22×6=132 sets.
The size of the farrowing crates is: 2.4m long and 1.8m wide, that is, the width of the sow cage is 0.8m, and there are piglets resting bars on both sides of sow cages; with a width of 0.4cm on one side and a width of 0.6m on the other side, the piglets area total width is 1m;
Floors for sow can be tri bar slat floor or cast iron slat floor,manures can drop under the slat floors,floor for piglets is usually plastic slat floor;
Sow feeders can use Sow Ad-Lib feeder and stainless steel flip sow feeder, piglet can use creep piglet feeder;pig drinker can use nipple waterer,pig drinking nipple bowl, and pig watering controller
Piglets transfer to nursery pen 28 days after weaning, and stay in nursery pen until 70 days age. The total staying time is: 70 days – 28 days = 42 days, then a total of (42÷7) + 1 = 7 weeks (plus 1 week of empty pen disinfection ), 22 litters of piglets per week, the number of piglets in the nursery pen: 22 litters × 10 piglets/litter = 220 pigs.
The designed weaning survival rate is 94%, so total alive piglets : 220 pigs × 7 × 94% ≈ 1448 piglets; every two litters of 18 nursery piglets are kept in a pen, total number of nursery pen: 1448 ÷18≈80 pens;
Each piglet occupies a pen area of 0.40 m2, then the area of each pen is: 18 × 0.40=7.2 m2; The length and width of the nursery pen can be designed according to the nursery house width.
The floor for nursery pen is usually use plastic slat floor, the feeders for nursery pen usually apply dual side stainless steel pig feeder,pig drinker can use nipple waterer,pig drinking nipple bowl, and pig watering controller; usually heating lamp and warm hood cover shall be install in the nursery pen to keep the temperature for small piglets
In order to reduce stress in the fattening pig house, the fatten pigs group will stay in the same fatten pen until ready for slaughtering.
Nursing pigs transfer to the fatten pen at the age of 70 days and will stay until at the age of 180 days, so the staying time is 180-70=110 days, that is, 110 days ÷ 7 days ≈ 16 weeks. If 1 week of disinfection time is added, it will take a total of 17 weeks.
The designed growth survival rate is 90%, so this stage should be stocked: 22 litters × 10 heads/litter × 90% × 17 = 3366 heads. There are 18 fatten pigs in each pen, and the number of fatten pen required is: 3366÷18≈187. Each fatten pig covers an area of 1 square meter, so the area of each barn is 18 square meters.
The length and width of the fatten pen can be designed according to the fatten house dimensions
The floor for fatten pen is usually use concrete slat floor, the feeders for fatten pen usually apply dual side stainless steel pig feeder,pig drinker can use nipple waterer,pig drinking nipple bowl, and pig watering controller
Dry sows transfer to the pig crates after farrowing, the average estrus period is 13 days, and they are released 4 weeks (28 days) after breeding.
The staying time in the dry sow pen is: 13+28=41 days, then 41 days÷7 days/week = 5.86≈6 weeks, plus 1 week of empty pen disinfection for a total of 7 weeks, 22 heads per week, then the number of co-existing dry sows is: 22×7=154 heads, 6 heads per pen, then the number of pig pens required is: 154÷6≈26. Each dry sow occupies an area of 2.5 square meters, and the pig pen area is: 2.5 × 6 = 15 m2.
The length and width of the pig pen can be designed according to the fatten house dimensions
The floor for dry sow pig pen is usually use concrete slat floor, the feeders for dry sow pen usually apply dual side stainless steel pig feeder,pig drinker can use nipple waterer,pig drinking nipple bowl, and pig watering controller
The gilt house: the annual culling rate of sows is 20%, then the annual number of sows to be culled is: 500×20%=100 heads, that is, the number of gilts to be supplemented every quarter is:
100÷4=25 heads, If there are 6 pigs in the gilt pen, the number of gilt stalls required is: 25÷6≈ 4. The area and size of the pigs are the same as those of the dry sow stall, You can consider reserving a gilt pen when constructing an empty breeding dry sow barn.
One pig crates per boar, 24 pens for natural mating (20 production boars, 4 gilts) and 10 pens for artificial insemination. The area of each boar pen is 10-12 m2, and its specifications are generally: length× width × height = 450 cm × 250 cm × 120 cm.
If you plan to start a new sow farm, you can contact Mus Agro by [email protected]
We can offer both designing service and all pig equipment for the farm,the designing service is free if you have all necessary information,we can workout complete proposal for equipment required and budgeting cost,includes pig crates, manual or automated feeding system, ventilating, cooling and heating system,manure collecting and processing system, please feel free to contact us!