In many countries, small and medium-scaled pig farms are still the core source of pork supply.
In order to offer some useful information to the potential new pig farm owners , we take one 200 breeding sows farm as an example, and discuss the pig farm design briefly, which will include the pig farm construction land and housing requirement, pig crates/pens production flow calculation, pig farm layout, basic facilities requirements ,and pig crates/pens quantity required.
This 200 breeding sows pig farm will require about 16,000 square meters land for the construction.
2 housing for fatten pigs shed, 1 housing for each mating shed, gestating shed, farrowing shed, and nursery shed, total 6 sheds housing required.
The reproductive cycle of the sow is calculated as 160 days, the number of live litter is calculated as 9,the survival rate of the farrowing room is 90%, and the survival rate of the nursery is 95%.
Number of pig farm design for piglets/finishers= number of sows/reproduction cycle ÷ ( 365 × number of piglets born alive in litter × survival rate in farrowing room × survival rate in nursery)
According to the above pig farm design calculation, 200 sows can produce about 3,510 piglets per year.
Replacing gilts throughout the year: 200 × 35% = 75.
The number of pregnant sows: 200×2.1×(114-21-7)÷365=99 heads.
Number of lactating sows at delivery: 200×2. 1×(28+7)÷365=40 heads.
Number of suckling piglets: 200×2. 1×90%×28×9÷365=261.
Number of birthing beds: 200×2×40÷365=44 (50 birthing beds are designed according to the actual situation).
Nursery pens: 200×2×9×45÷365÷10=44 (according to the actual situation, the nursery pens corresponds to the farrowing crates, and the number is the same).
Refer to the requirements and reserve areas such as clean road, sewage road, living and office area, and manure treatment.
According to the pig farm design of 200 sows in stock, 2 fattening houses are designed, and there are 1 each for mating house, gestation house, farrowing house and nursery house.
Reserve some stalls, the stalls to be allocated, the stalls of pregnancy stalls, and the stalls of farrowing stalls and nursery stalls are slightly larger than the calculated values.
In tropical areas, special attention should be paid to the problem of heatstroke prevention and cooling in summer. Mechanical ventilation or evaporate curtains cooling system can be used, and double-layer colored tiles can be used on the roof to keep warm in winter and cool in summer.
In cold areas, special attention should be paid to keeping warm in winter, especially in farrowing house and nursery house, it is recommended to use lower ceilings to keep warm.
Considering the layout of the pig farm design, in order to facilitate the rotation of sows during the production process, the fattening pigs and the prevention and control of epidemic diseases, the layout shall be in the order sequence of nursery house – farrowing house – gestation house – mating house – fattening house.
The fattening area is far away from the breeding area, which is conducive to the prevention and control of epidemic diseases.
The construction of pig farms should be more than 3 km away from villages and towns, major traffic roads, etc., and away from slaughterhouses, chemical plants and other pollution sources.
Sunshine sheltered from wind, high and dry terrain, good ventilation, sufficient water and electricity, good water quality, convenient drainage, and convenient transportation.
The layout of the pig farm should be designed with 4 division areas, the living and management area, the production supporting area, the production area and the breeding pig sports area.
The production area should include breeding , Nursing and fattening areas, each area should be separated by more than 10 m; the breeding houses, gestation houses, nursery houses, growth and fattening houses, and pig loading platforms should be arranged in the direction from upwind to downwind.
The gate of the pig farm shall be equipped with a disinfection pool and a disinfection machine, and vehicles entering and leaving shall be disinfected; a disinfection channel shall be set up for personnel, and personnel entering and entering shall be registered and disinfected;
A fence, an epidemic prevention ditch and an epidemic prevention forest shall be set up around the pig farm; and a sewage system project shall be constructed.
The production line of pig farm design generally consists of a breeding house, a gestation house, a farrowing house, a nursery house, a growth house and a finishing house. The size of each pig house depends on the number and arrangement of pig pens in the pig house.
In the process of large-scale pig production, in order to improve the utilization rate of pig houses and pig production efficiency, the method of all-in, all-out and balanced production is generally adopted, and production is carried out on a weekly basis, and a certain number of sows are raised to form a single Production line, each production line is composed of breeding, pregnancy, childbirth, nursery, growth, breeding and other links.
Taking a production line that raises 200 sows and produces 3,500 commercial pigs per year as an example, if each sow produces 2.1 litters per year on average, it can produce 420 litters per year, with an average of 8 litters per week. Weeks should have 8 sows bred, 8 sows give birth, 8 litters of piglets are weaned into the nursery, and 8 litters of fattening pigs are released.
The sow’s occupation time in the breeding barn: After weaning, the sows are transferred to the breeding barn. Generally, the sows are in estrus for 4 to 5 days, and the average is about 7 days.
Therefore, the time the sow is in the breeding house should be equal to the number of days from weaning to service, plus the number of days in an estrus cycle. That is 7d+21d=28d or 4 weeks.
Occupation time of sows in the gestation house: The pregnant sows enter the farrowing house about 7 days before giving birth, so the time in the gestation house should be 114 days minus one estrus cycle, and then minus 7 days, which is 114-21-7 = 86d or around 12 weeks.
Sow occupied time in farrowing house: equal to lactation period plus 7d, if weaned at 28d, the sow should be in the farrowing house for 35d or 5 weeks. After determining the sow occupancy time in each house, the number of sow pens in each house can be calculated.
The layout of the pig farm in this example fully considers the design of the delivery room and the nursery room. Both buildings are all in and out according to the production rhythm.
In the calculation of the specifications and quantity of the pig pens, one column of the delivery room corresponds to the other column of nursery.