In our livestock breeding and production, livestock and poultry are infected with Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Pasteurella multocida, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.
These pathogens will produce a large number of internal and external toxins to cause damage to the body.
① The endotoxin of gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Pasteurella is the main component of cell wall,
which cannot be released when bacteria live. After bacteria die (normal apoptosis or being killed by antibiotics), their broken corpses will be released.
② However, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and other gram-positive bacteria mainly release exotoxins.
For example, the toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens (Clostridium welchii) can cause necrotizing enteritis in piglets, and the exotoxin produced by Clostridium perfringens can increase body temperature, reduce the intake of livestock and poultry, or give up appetite and depression.
Other pathogenic microorganisms that produce toxins include spirochetes, mycoplasma, chlamydia, rickettsia, etc.
They can also release substances similar to endotoxin activity. These inflammatory factors can cause animal temperature rise, swelling, inflammation, etc.
There are also most viruses, such as influenza virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, infectious bronchitis virus, swine fever virus, circovirus, etc.
These viruses can cause high fever symptoms.
In the clinical diagnosis of the disease, the comprehensive high fever disease caused by various pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins often causes large economic losses to farmers.
The endotoxin I mentioned earlier will cause pain, swelling (edema), congestion and fever in individual pigs.
It can cause systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis, and in severe cases, toxic shock, diffuse intravascular coagulation, multi disease respiratory syndrome, chronic adenomyogastritis syndrome, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiple organ failure and even death.
For example, Escherichia coli can produce lethal swelling toxin to cause edema disease of piglets, and it can produce thermostable enterotoxin to cause yellow diarrhea and white diarrhea of piglets.
The symptoms caused by endotoxin produced by different pathogens are roughly the same, which can cause body temperature rise, diarrhea, severe sepsis, toxic shock and other organ and tissue damage.
We all know that antibacterial agents can inhibit or kill pathogenic bacteria, so can antibacterial agents also inhibit the biological activity of endotoxin?
Whether the answer is yes or not, antibacterial drugs can only kill bacteria.
When diseases occur in the respiratory system, intestinal system, reproductive system, mammary gland and other systems of pigs, large doses of antibiotics are used for antibacterial and bactericidal treatment.
Some bacteria, especially gram-negative bacteria (such as Escherichia coli, Haemophilus parasuis, Pasteurella, etc.) will release a large amount of endotoxin when crushing dead corpses.
In this way, endotoxin will gather at the infected site, and its virulence is very strong, leading to body fever and secondary infection.
In severe cases, it may turn to sepsis, shock, or even death. In the clinical manifestations of endotoxemia and sepsis, etc., will produce acute death.
The observation results of the infected animals showed that the number of live bacteria in the blood of the animals with Escherichia coli sepsis treated with gentamicin sulfate would decrease sharply, but the concentration of endotoxin in the blood also increased sharply, H times higher than the original level.
In particular, pigs are constipated, do not defecate for a long time, and feces accumulate in the distension,
which will also produce a large amount of endotoxin. Therefore, pigs with constipation eat less or do not eat, and the body is weak and resistant to disease.
The endotoxin is greater than the body’s excretion, which will also increase the endotoxin in the pig’s blood.
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