Pig breeding accounts for a large proportion in the total amount of animal husbandry economy and has become a pillar industry of agriculture and rural economy
1.1 outstanding market advantages of Pig breeding
Landrace, Duroc and Yorkshire pigs belong to the world famous pig species and are widely distributed. Controlling the export of breeding pigs is a typical feature of a strong pig raising country. The United States has about 700-2000 core sows and is the world’s largest Pig breeding exporter. The outstanding advantages of breeding pig resources are closely related to its long-term and unremitting scientific breeding.
1.2 reduction of pig farms and expansion of breeding scale
In 1975, there were 647000 pig farms in the United States, which decreased to 69400 in 2005. The average breeding scale of pig farms increased from 87 to 871. On the whole, the number of pig farms in the world’s strong pig breeding countries is decreasing year by year, and the Pig breeding regulations
The continuous expansion of the model has realized the industrialization of pig breeding
1.3 live litter size of sows
Among the strong Pig breeding countries, Hungary and the United States have the lowest number of live piglets, while Denmark and France have the highest number, with 2 more live piglets than the first two countries. Since 2000, the number of live piglets produced by French sows has been similar to that of Denmark, which is mainly obtained by introducing Meishan pig with superior multiple birth performance into the breeding sows.
1.4 pig mortality
In a survey on the mortality of pig herds, it was found that 56% of farmers thought that the high mortality of pig herds was one of the important factors that restricted the economic benefits of Pig breeding. Among some world Pig breeding powers,
In the large-scale pig production, animal health management and biosafety control are the priority.
The engineering epidemic prevention facilities are relatively perfect, which reduces the risk of epidemic disease outbreak to a certain extent.
1.5 number of slaughtered pigs provided in the year of sow
The country with the highest pig production level has 4 more sows per year than the country with the lowest production level. Compared with other European countries, the level of pig production in Britain is low. Although the number of live piglets of sows is equal, the non production period of French sows is longer, and the annual number of sows provided by French sows is 2 less than that of Denmark. Ireland, Denmark and the Netherlands have the highest pig production efficiency. Due to the high mortality rate of the Danish pig population, the number of slaughtered pigs provided by the female pigs is 2 less than that of the Netherlands.
1.6 feed conversion rate
In the pig production, the feed cost accounts for more than half of the production input and plays a key role in the pig production. The feed consumption of weaned to slaughtered pigs accounts for the majority of the total feed consumption, so the feed conversion rate of weaned to slaughtered pigs directly affects the economic benefits of breeding. Canada, the United States and Hungary had the lowest feed conversion rate; Among European countries, the Netherlands has the highest feed conversion rate.
1.7 pork production cost
The feed conversion rate during the breeding and fattening period is only a part of the breeding input,
and the pork production cost can better explain the input of pig breeding.
The feed cost of producing pork carcass is the lowest in Canada, followed by the United States. T
he feed cost price advantage of the two countries is obvious.
1.8 advantages and disadvantages of pig production
Countries are trying to find suitable ways to reduce the cost of pig breeding.
The advantages of pig production in South America are low cost of land, equipment and labor, unique natural climate and large market demand.
Brazil and Argentina produce high-quality corn and soybean, which is conducive to the development of pig production.
China has the highest input in Pig breeding, while Brazil has the lowest.
2.1 developing countries will play a more important role in pig production
In 1978, 60% of the world’s pork came from developed countries, and the output of developing countries accounted for only 40%. In 2010, the market share of pork in developing countries accounted for 60%. Due to the increasing pressure on the environment and ecology caused by pig production, pig production has a tendency to transfer from developed countries to developing countries.
2.2 pig production is more intensive and professional
Under the pressure of economy and environmental protection, pig production tends to be intensive and professional, and pig farms are concentrated from scattered distribution to local areas. Pig production is more specialized and the production level is constantly improved.
2.3 layout transfer of pig producing areas
Highly intensive and perfect feeding management are typical characteristics of modern pig production. Although pigs can be raised almost everywhere in the world. However, due to the pressure of economy and environmental protection, the main production area of live pigs is gradually transferred to the main production area of feed, which saves the transportation cost of feed.
2.4 prohibit antibiotics and pay attention to meat safety
The prohibition of antibiotics caused the decrease of feed conversion rate, the slow growth of pigs, and the increase of mortality and treatment cost of weaned piglets.
2.5 actively promote welfare breeding of live pigs
In modern pig production, most of the pigs live in the environment of full or semi leaky floor. Under the floor is a fecal and urine storage tank, and pregnant sows are raised in the limit bar. At present, regulations such as 2001 / 88 / EC, 2001 / 93 / EC and 96 / 61 / EC have been promulgated to strengthen the implementation of animal welfare.
2.6 actively seek alternative systems to promote welfare breeding of pigs
Many European countries and a few countries in North America have adopted alternative systems for pig breeding, which requires that pigs must be provided with bedding outside the house or in the house. It is of great significance to seek an ideal alternative system for traditional breeding, reduce the cost input and improve the profit of pig breeding, so as to promote the healthy and welfare breeding of pigs.
2.7 strengthen epidemic prevention and control
With the expansion of the breeding scale, the multi-point production process mode highlights its advantages in disease control and has been widely adopted and applied. In large-scale and intensive pig production, animal health management and biosafety control are the priority.
2.8 pay attention to environmental protection
The emission of ammonia from animal husbandry has become an important source of air pollution, which endangers the health of people and animals, as well as the growth and production performance of livestock and poultry, and has caused serious environmental and ecological problems. For animal husbandry with serious environmental pollution, the production mode must be changed to meet the requirements of low-carbon animal husbandry. The world’s pig raising powers attach great importance to livestock emission reduction, attach equal importance to waste source and process emission reduction, and strengthen the efficiency of waste end treatment.
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